Jakarta, officially the Special Capital Region of Jakarta, is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. Located on the northwest coast of the world's most populous island Java, it is the centre of economics, culture and politics of Indonesia, with a population of 10,075,310. Jakarta, formerly (until 1949) Batavia or (1949–72) Djakarta, largest city and capital of Indonesia. Jakarta lies on the northwest coast of Java at the mouth of the Ciliwung (Liwung River), on Jakarta Bay (an embayment of the Java Sea). It is coextensive with the metropolitan district of Greater Jakarta (Jakarta Raya) and nearly coextensive with the daerah khusus ibukota (special capital district) of Jakarta—the latter also including a number of small offshore islands in the Java Sea.
Jakarta lies on a low, flat alluvial plain with historically extensive swampy areas; the parts of the city farther inland are slightly higher. It is easily flooded during the rainy season. The draining of swamps for building purposes and the continuous decrease of upland forest vegetation have increased the danger of floods. With such an excess of water in the soil, Jakarta has a shortage of clean drinking water, for which there is increasing demand. The area is quite fertile for fruit and other horticulture, as most of the soil is of old volcanic origin.
Soekarno–Hatta International Airport, abbreviated SHIA or Cengkareng Airport, hence IATA designator "CGK", is the primary airport serving the Greater Jakarta area on the island of Java in Indonesia.
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